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格罗弗·克利关兰:反对反移民法案,反对实行保护关税

kira86 于2010-05-20发布 l 已有人浏览
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American History: Cleveland Opposes Anti-Immigration Laws and High Tariffs


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BARBARA KLEIN: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION – American history in VOA Special English.

In our last program, we told you how the flow of immigration to the United States began to change in the eighteen eighties. Before then, most of the immigrants came from central and northern Europe. From Britain, Ireland, Germany and the Scandinavian countries.

The largest number came from Britain. They found it easy to settle in a country that, until seventeen seventy-six, was a collection of British colonies. The newcomers from Britain shared the same language with the Americans and many of the same traditions. Some of these early immigrants were skilled workers who found good jobs in American industry. Others were farmers who came to America for free land.

This week in our series, Robert Bostic and Jack Weitzel continue the story of immigration in the United States.

ROBERT BOSTIC: After eighteen eighty, the flood of immigration from northern and central Europe began to fall. Now, most immigrants were coming from eastern and southern Europe. From Russia, Poland, Romania, Italy, Greece.

These new immigrants were different from those who came earlier. Most did not speak English. Most were poor farmers who had few special skills. Most had little or no education.

They were, however, good workers. They did not protest working long hours for low pay. They did not demand better working conditions. They usually refused to join labor unions or take part in strikes.

JACK WEITZEL: American factory owners were pleased with the new immigrants. They gave them jobs formerly held by higher-paid American workers. The owners asked the new workers to write letters to friends still in the old country, urging them to come to America.

And they came by the hundreds of thousands to take jobs in steel factories in Pennsylvania and the coal mines of West Virginia. They worked in the lumber camps of Michigan and in the stockyards and the meat-packing plants of Chicago.

American workers then began to protest, as their jobs were filled by immigrants who were happy to work for less money.

ROBERT BOSTIC: The protests were especially bitter on the pacific coast where thousands of Chinese immigrants were settling in California.

The Chinese arrived there after eighteen fifty to help build western railroads. After the railroads were completed, these Chinese new-comers turned to other jobs. More came every year. By the eighteen seventies, California's political leaders were demanding an end to further immigration from China.

In eighteen eighty-two, Congress passed a law that barred Chinese immigration for ten years. The law was extended for another ten years then made permanent.

JACK WEITZEL: The immigration law of eighteen eighty-two put other limits on immigration. It closed the country to criminals, the mentally ill, and persons who could not support themselves. Later, others were added to this list. Persons with diseases. Anarchists. Alcoholics.

This, however, did not greatly reduce immigration from eastern and southern Europe. And opponents of immigration demanded stronger action.

Some proposed a literacy test. Immigrants would have to show that they could read and write. An immigrant who could not, would not be permitted to enter the country.

ROBERT BOSTIC: Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts urged Congress to pass such a law. In a Senate speech, lodge said:

"If we care for the welfare, the wages, or the standard of life of American workingmen, we should take immediate steps to limit foreign immigration. There is no danger to our working men from the coming of skilled workers or of trained and educated men. But there is a serious danger from the flood of unskilled, ignorant foreign labor.

"This labor not only takes lower wages, but accepts a standard of living so low that the American working man cannot compete with it."

Senator Lodge continued.

"A literacy test will bear very lightly, if at all, upon English-speaking immigrants or Germans, Scandinavians and French. The races which would suffer most under a literacy test would be those with which the English-speaking people have never united, and who are most different from the great majority of the people of the United States."

Congress passed the proposal. President Cleveland, however, vetoed it. He said the nation had nothing to fear from immigrants who could not read or write. He said there was greater danger from some of the educated immigrants who urged violence and anarchy.

It took a number of years before Congress was able to pass a law demanding a literacy test for immigrants.

JACK WEITZEL: Another problem troubled President Cleveland. High tariffs -- taxes on imports.

Soon after his election, Cleveland decided to learn what he could about the tariff. "I'm sorry to say," said Cleveland, "but the truth is, I know nothing about the tariff."

Cleveland studied all the information he could find about the tariff. He found that the tariff was used not only to get money for the government, but to protect American industry from foreign competition. The tariffs had been raised so high that they were producing more money than the government needed.

Cleveland decided that high tariffs were wrong. He told other democratic leaders that he would try to get them reduced.

The politicians warned him not to try. They said he would only lose the support of businessmen. They said he would need campaign money from business if he expected to be elected president again. But Cleveland rejected their advice. He said, "What is the use of being elected or re-elected, if you don't stand for something."

ROBERT BOSTIC: So, late in eighteen eighty-seven, Cleveland sent a tariff message to Congress.

He said it was wrong to raise more tax money than the government needed. When this happens, he said, money is withdrawn from the people's use and kept in the public treasury, where it does no good. It threatens the economy and invites dishonest attempts to use the money for private interests.

The government, he said, received most of this unnecessary tax money from tariffs. He said the present tariff laws were vicious, unfair, and illogical. He said they raised the prices of all imported goods which could be taxed. They also led American manufacturers to raise their prices as high as those charged for imported goods.

Cleveland said some men had become rich, because protective tariffs let them charge high prices. He noted that American businessmen like to talk about the strength and success of American industry. But he said that when the question of the tariff is raised, businessmen claim that industry is weak. They say they cannot compete with low-priced foreign products.

JACK WEITZEL: Cleveland said he did not propose that all tariffs be ended. He said some were needed to raise money for the government. And he said some industries could not exist unless they were protected by tariffs. But he said tariffs should not let some industries make huge profits.

Cleveland warned that it would be far better to make safe, careful, and intelligent changes in the tariff laws now. Otherwise, he said, there might come a time when an angry public would demand radical and sweeping changes.

ROBERT BOSTIC: The House of Representatives moved quickly to pass a moderate bill that would reduce many of the tariffs. The legislation -- called the Mills Bill -- was exactly what Cleveland wanted. But the bill ran into trouble in the Senate, where Republicans had control.

Senator William Allison, a Republican from Iowa, proposed a different tariff bill. It was one that would increase tariffs...not reduce them.

The Senate debated the tariff question for months. And since it was eighteen eighty-eight -- a presidential election year -- the tariff became an important election issue.

The Democrats promised low tariffs that would mean lower prices for the people. The Republicans defended high tariffs, which they said were necessary to protect American industry and labor.

The Democrats nominated Grover Cleveland for another four-year term. The Republicans held their nominating convention two weeks later.

That will be our story next week.

(MUSIC)

BARBARA KLEIN: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Robert Bostic and Jack Weitzel. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at en8848.com. You can also follow us on Facebook and Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

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200年来美国移民法的变迁史

美国移民法从1776年美国建国开始,国会就授权总统保证进入美一的外国人没有疾病而且品性端正,此后有关移民的法律和规定相继问世,经多次修改,最终形成了目前世界上最复杂,最繁琐的移民法规,而每—次变动,不是给见些人带来机会,就是使某些人失去机会。

1798年《外国人法案》《Alien Act》:该法授权总统驱逐其认为有害于国家安全的外国人出境;

1808年《美国宪法》修正案:禁止奴隶输入;

1875年:国会首次对不准进入美国的外国人进行分类,其中包括娼妓,精神病患者等,

1876年美国最高法院具有历史性意义的判决:决定外国人能否进入美国的权利属于联邦政府,任何州设移民条例均属违宪。

1882年《禁止输入中国劳工法案》(Chinese Exclusion Act):中国廉价劳工大规模的输人,引发社会严重不满,国会立法禁止在1943年以前输入中国劳工,1892年《禁止输入中国劳工法修订案》:规定在美的中国劳工须向政府登记注册.一年后未能出示注册证明者,将可能被递解出境;

1907年《移民法案》,扩大了不可入境类的范围,其中包括16岁以上的文盲,以及日后对东方人进入美国的限制;

1921年:国会首次正式制订了移民配额法规,规定每个国家每年进入美国的人数不得超过1910年该国公民在美总数的3%,而允许进入美国的外国移民总数每年不得超过35万人,但西半球国家公民进入美国不受配额限制,

1924年《种族法案》,国会首次制订了永久性配额,规定除西半球国家外,全世界所有其他国家每年进入美国的移民总数最多不得超过15万人,对每个国家的配额分配以1920年美国的种族结构为依据,同时规定任何外国人要进入美国必须首先向美国境外的领馆申请签证,无签证进人美国将在任何时候被递解出境,此外还增加了对亚洲移民的限制,

1940年《外国人登记法案》,该法案规定所有在美国的外国人必须进行登记并提交指纹记录,同时增加了递解犯罪人员和颠覆分子的种类。

1943年《废除禁止输入中国劳工法案》:该法案规定中国居民可以移民美国。

1945年《战时新娘法案》允许美国军事人员的118,000名配偶及子女移民美国。

1948年《失去家园者法案》,该法允许40万德国、意大利和奥地利难民进入美国;

1952年《移民与国籍法》:该法案亦称《麦克卡恩.沃尔特法案》,它为现今的美国移民法奠定了基础和构架。该法融合了以往有关移民的全部法案和法规,制订了西半球移民不受配额限制和其他国家以在美人数为配额依据的规定,同时制订了以家庭团聚、保护国内劳工市场以及要求移民拥有技术为内容的有关法规,

1953年《难民收容法案》:该法再次允许214,000难民进入美国;

1965年《移民与国籍法修订案》,该法废除了种族配额,代之以设立八个类别,以保障家庭团聚并吸收有才能和技术的外国人,同时实行“先来先得”的政策。该法还规定东半球国家每年的移民总数为17万,每个国家不得超过2万。此外,该法规定美国公民的配偶和子女以及21岁以上美国公民之父母移民美国不受数量限制。该法还创立了对技术与非技术工人入境实施劳工证制度,并规定每年的难民配额为1万人。

《1976年移民与国籍法修订案》:该法取消了东半球和西半球的移民差别,代之以全球性的固定配额,即每个国家每年移民配额为不超过2万,其优先顺序为:①亲属团聚;②美国缺乏的技术工人;③难民。

1978年:第95届国会对移民法规进行了大规模修改,其中主要包括取消了每个国家的单列配额,确定了全世界每年进入美国的移民总额不得超过29万人。此外还立法规定双亲中一方为美国公民者,其子女可获得美国公民身份;在美合法永久居留超过20年之50岁以上的外国人可以归化为美国公民;美国公民有权收养外籍子女。此外还正式设立了难民身份。

1980年《新难民法案》,该法对配额进行了某些变更,确立了“难民”和“政治庇护”的中请程序,同时批准在1980至1982年接纳5万难民,此外,全球移民配额总数减少为27万。

《1981年移民与国籍法修订案》:该法案修订和增加的主要内容包括:

  (1)列出了《移民局效率议案》

  (2)美国公民收养之外籍子女的年龄由14岁提高到16岁。

  (3)再入境许可证由1年有效期增加为2年有效。

  (4)取消外国人的年登记制度,但规定外国人在其变更住址后10天内须书面通知移民局。

  (5)取消归化入籍需两名证入的规定,

  (6)通过了参议院第1196号议案,批准台湾每年移民配额为2万,同时也给中国大陆保持两万;

《1986年移民改革与控制法》:该法案以大赦为宗旨,共赦免了270万左右的非法移民,但有人认为该法虽以移民控制为名,但实际上并未达到控制非法移民的目的。此后又有若干新的有关移民的法律出笼,其中包括结婚欺诈修正案、反毒品滥用法等等。

《1990年移民法》:该法亦称为《合法移民改革法案》,被认为是历年来改变最大,设立类别最多,而且最为宽松的移民法,该法案以合法移民与非法移民为中心,增加的主要内容如下:

  (1)将合法移民配额从原来的每年27万人增加至675,000人。但至1994年9月30日,每年实际配额为70万人,

  (2)美国公民之近亲亲属不受配额限制。

  (3)增加了若干亲属移民和职业移民的类别,同时增加了对非技术工入移民的限制,新的非移民类别包括O、P、Q、R等签证类别;

  (4)创立了投资移民类别,

  (5)创立了以人种多元化为宗旨的抽签移民类别,

《1991年移民与国籍法综合枝术修订案》,该法案是1990年移民法的修订,其主要内容包括增加了不可入境类申请豁免的类别并降低豁免的要求,以及延长符合要求的H-1B外国医学院毕业生在美开业行医。

《1996年非法移民改革和移民责任法》,该法案是在近年来反移民情绪不断高涨下所通过的移民法,该法被一般人认为是一反历年来日益宽松的移民法而制订的具有综合性严厉条款的移民法,带有浓厚的反移民色彩。同原有移民法相比,该法增加的主要内容包括:

  (1)加强边境控制,阻止非法移民。

  (2)改变及取消某些听证程序,快速遣返非法人境者。

  (3)加重对愉渡非法移民及伪造移民证件的刑事处罚,其中包括对移民申请提交假材料的刑事处罚。

  (4)增加了不可入境类的类别,其中包括:

  A.在美非法居留超过180天,3年内不得再次入境;超过1年,10年内不得再次入境;

  B.滥用F-1学生签证者被归入了不可入境类。其行为包括:免费就读公立中小学或公共资助的成人教育计划。如果违犯,5年内不得入境;

  C.拒绝可能成为公众负担者入境,其具体要求是任何移民必须获得有法律制约力的经济担保或者经济来源证明,方可入境;

  D.未接受过防疫接种者不可入境。即任何人申请移民必须提供其接受过防疫接种的证明;

  E.不按规定到场参加听证,移民法官可缺席下达递解令,被递解者10年内不得再次入境;

  F.医疗保健工作人员(包括物理治疗、医疗技师、职业理疗师、助理医师等)如果没有获得“外国护理学校毕业生委员会”的考试证明或同等证明,则为不可入境类;

  G.伪称是美国公民者被归入不可入境类;

  H.为逃避税赋而放弃美国公民身份者被归入不可入境类;

  I,家庭暴力犯被归入不可入境类。

  (5)限制并惩罚雇主雇用非法移民。

  (6)将因抗拒强迫性人口政策而受迫害者归入政治庇护类,但每年配额不超过1,000人,

  (7)削减合法移民的社会福利,

  (8)禁止逾期居留者赴第三国使领馆申请签证。

从美国移民法的变迁,可以看出早期的移民法主要是把有害于社会和不受欢迎的人排除在移民之外,这些人包括罪犯、娼妓、传染病患者、疯子、赤贫者、乞丐、颠覆分子、无政府主义者以及一夫多妻者等。在1882年以前的整个早期移民法中,对移民除了有害于公众者之外基本上没有限制,这反映了美国在建国之初的头一百年需要大量移民来开发和建设这个国家,因此对移民几乎是来者不拒。从某种意义上讲,当年的美国也全凭这一卓有成效的移民政策,使美国能够在短短的一百来年即由东向西迅速拓展,并使中西部也日益城市工业化。

从1882年到1952年可视为美国的中期移民法。在这段时间,其移民法总地趋于保守和相对静止的状态,反映了美国随着移民垦荒时代的结束,开始拒移民于门外。此外,在这一阶段由于经过两次世界大战和人萧条时期,一方面由于美国担心战争把难民推进这个国家而对移民开始实行配额限制,另一方面又因大萧条使美国失去了对移民的吸引力,因此进入美国的移民减少,移民法也几乎没有大的变更,1952年通过的《移民与国籍法》彻底改变了美国移民法的基本精神,同时奠定了美国现代移民法的宗旨及基本构架,从这个时期开始,由于美国一跃而为世界头号经济强国,美国也因此成了各国移民的首选。一方面出于历史原因,因为美国这个国家可以说就是移民的大组合,不可能切断其移民渊源,使美国关闭国门,另一方面源于早年即有被滥用趋势的保护劳工市场观念,美国又力图把国门关闭,此外涉入移民法的机构除原有执法部门外,更有工会、利益集团和司法参与。还有自60年代开始的非法移民,也使美国的移民政策倍受冲击。

 

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