1. 英语小说: 小说下载 在线小说 读书推荐
  2. 英语短文: 家庭保健 健康生活 幸福情感
  1. 能力: 英语口语 英语听力 职场英语 商务英语 影视英语 少儿英语 行业英语 双语阅读
  2. 考试: 英语四级 英语六级 笔译口译 英语单词 考研英语 课堂英语 英语考试 新概念

英语听力

听力入门英语演讲VOA慢速英语美文听力教程英语新闻名校课程听力节目影视听力英语视频

VOA美国历史系列:小巨角战役 Battle of Little Big Horn

kira86 于2010-04-08发布 l 已有人浏览
增大字体 减小字体
American History: Custer's Last Stand Against the Indians高速下载 BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATI
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……
American History: Custer's Last Stand Against the Indians


高速下载

BOB DOUGHTY: Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

During the eighteen hundreds, the federal government forced American Indians to live on lands called reservations. No longer could the Indians move freely over the Great Plains to hunt buffalo. White people were settling there. The situation resulted in violence.

This week in our series, Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe continue the story of the western wars.

KAY GALLANT: The government sent soldiers to force the Indians to move to reservations. But the soldiers could not keep them there. Groups of Indians would leave the reservations in the spring. They followed the buffalo across the plains.

Some raided the homes of white settlers. They stole horses and cattle. At the end of the summer, the Indians would return to the reservations. And the government would give them food for the winter.

HARRY MONROE: As years passed, fewer Indians left the reservations to live the old life on the plains. It became difficult to find buffalo. The plains were becoming empty.

Only a few years before, millions of buffalo lived on the Great Plains. Then railroads were built across the country. White men came to claim the grasslands. They put up fences. Cowboys came up from Texas with huge groups of cattle. They forced the buffalo away or killed them.

The Indians tried to prevent this killing. Angry groups of Indians often attacked white buffalo hunters. But the army was too strong. Soldiers killed or captured many Indians. Finally, most Indians gave up the struggle. They surrendered their guns and horses. They went back to the reservations and became farmers.

KAY GALLANT: All this was taking place in what is now the south-central part of the United States. Far to the north, another struggle was taking place involving the great Sioux Indian tribe.

The Sioux had signed a treaty with the government in eighteen sixty-eight. The treaty gave them a large reservation in what is now Nebraska, South Dakota and Wyoming.

The Black Hills in Dakota were part of the reservation. These hills were important to the Sioux. In their religion, the Black Hills were a holy place. They were the center of their world, where the gods lived. They were the place where Indian fighters went to speak with the Great Spirit.

HARRY MONROE: In eighteen seventy-three, the Black Hills suddenly became important to white men, too. Gold was discovered there. Treaties and religion meant nothing to the white miners who rushed to the Black Hills to search for gold. At first, the Indians killed some of the miners. They chased others away. But more miners came.

The Sioux tribe asked the government to enforce the treaty. Tribal leaders asked the government to keep white men away from the reservation.

The army sent soldiers to remove the miners. The soldiers ordered the miners to leave. But they made no effort to enforce the order. Again the Indians protested. This time, the government sent officials to negotiate a new treaty. It asked the Sioux Indians to give up the Black Hills.

Some of the Indian leaders refused to negotiate. One who rejected the invitation was Sitting Bull. "I do not want to sell any land to the government," Chief Sitting Bull said. He held a little dust between his fingers. "Not even this much."

KAY GALLANT: This resistance did not stop government efforts to get the Black Hills for the miners. The War Department sent General George Crook to punish the Indians and force them back to their reservation. Crook led a large force into Sioux country. He surprised an Indian village, capturing hundreds of horses.

There was another clash a few months later. This time, the result was very different. The Indians gave the army its worst defeat in almost a century.

HARRY MONROE: The battle took place near the Little Bighorn River. General George Custer led two hundred twelve soldiers in search of the Indian leader, Crazy Horse. As General Custer moved through the river valley, he sent men ahead to explore the area. His men returned with reports that thousands of Indians were waiting to attack. Custer refused to listen. He pushed forward.

Soon, his forces were surrounded by Indians. In less than an hour, the Indians killed the general and every one of his men. The white soldiers lay dead at Little Bighorn. And Custer's name would go down in history as a symbol of foolish pride in battle.

The battle at Little Bighorn was a serious defeat for the United States Army. But the Indians' victory did not last long. Within a year, the army forced most of the Sioux to surrender. It took the Black Hills for the miners. It moved the Indians to a new reservation.

KAY GALLANT: In the next few years, the same thing happened to other Indian tribes throughout the West. Under great pressure from white settlers, the government took land from the Indians and opened it to settlement. The size of Indian reservations was reduced again and again.

One by one, the Indian tribes of the West changed. Their fierce fighters became farmers who needed government help. They were weak and broken in spirit.

One Indian leader named Black Elk described the situation best. He was a survivor of a battle at a place called Wounded Knee. Many Indian women and children had died there. Years later, Black Elk said:

"I did not know then how much was ended. When I look back now from this high hill of my old age, I can still see the dead lying all over the ground. And I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud, and was buried. A people's dream died there."

HARRY MONROE: Some Indians turned to religion during this difficult time. An Indian religious leader named Wavoka gained influence.

Wavoka declared that the Great Spirit had chosen him to prepare the Indians for a new world. He said the new world would arrive soon. And it would be a wonderful world. There would be no white men, he said. And all dead Indians would come back to life.

Wavoka warned that new soil would rise up and cover the world like a flood. He said Indians could escape destruction by dancing a special dance. It was called the Ghost Dance. Wavoka said the Ghost Dance would make Indians powerful. He said it would even protect them from bullets fired by the white men's guns.

KAY GALLANT: Thousands of Indians in the American west listened to Wavoka's message. They believed him. And they began to dance for long hours every day. On the Sioux reservations, all other activities stopped. Children no longer went to school. No one did anything but dance.

All this frightened white officials. They tried to arrest some Indian leaders to stop the dancing. The arrests led to fighting. And the fighting led to a final battle in which the army defeated the Indians completely. The Indian wars were over.

Wavoka himself told his followers: "Our trails are covered with grass and sand. We cannot find them. Today I call upon you to travel a new trail. It is the only trail now open -- the White man's road."

(MUSIC)

BOB DOUGHTY: Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Kay Gallant and Harry Monroe. You can find our series online with transcripts, MP3s, podcasts and images at en8848.com. You can also get our programs on Twitter and at our new fan page on Facebook. Find us at VOA Learning English (Special English). Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

1876年6月25日
小巨角战役﹙Battle of Little Big Horn﹚

  苏族与夏安族联盟 vs. Custer与美国第七骑兵团
  1874年,在达科达州的Black Hills发现了金矿。美军和北美势力最庞大的苏族印地安人之间的战争,宛若箭在弦上。
  Black Hills对许多部落来说是不可侵犯的圣山,在1868年美国BANNED和苏族及夏安族所订定的The Fort Laramie Treaty当中明订「白人不可在Black Hills区定居或是占地,也不可以在未经印地安人许可之下擅入」相对地,印地安人则被要求不可反对在邻近地区进行铁路建设、也不可骚扰新移民。印地安人切实遵守这项条约,但是白人可不是这么一回事。
  发现金矿的消息迅速传开,涌入达科达州的淘金客快速增加。美国BANNED本来打算和印地安人购买Black Hills的所有权,但视其为圣山的印地安人不为所动。因此BANNED决定无视1868年的条约,并且声明在1876年1月31日以前没有定居在『印地安保留区』的印地安人通通都是美国的敌人。
  但许多印地安人不但没有听从如此恫吓,反而是加入由Sitting Bulls和Crazy Horse所领导的印地安联盟,离开保留区,驻扎在黄石河Yellowstone河谷,和当地新移民之间的冲突也屡屡发生。美国BANNED下令惩罚这些不遵守命令、又不肯去保留区的印地安人。他们知道印地安人集结在Black Hills的西北,以及Sitting Bulls为其领帅,因此他们决定从不同方向同时发动攻击,但此计划被严寒的冬天所延后。
  总指挥是General Sheridan。三大部队分别由Generals Crook, Gibbon and Terry所率领,而在Terry的部队当中,就有由Custer中校所带领的第七骑兵团。
  春天来临,BANNED军再次前进。
  Terry军前进一个月后,抵达Rosebud river的河口,他派出侦察兵推测出苏族就驻扎在小巨角河河畔。Terry派遣Custer和第七骑兵团往西南行,到山上去,而他自己的部队则带着大炮与步兵从侧边逼近。他的战略是包围印地安人,并且以全军之力在小巨角河击溃他们。
  三天后,Custer和他的骑兵团接近搭建在小巨角河河畔的巨大印地安营帐。没有发现到、或是无视于印地安的军力︰有4000 到5000名印第安人,当中包括约 2500位战士,Custer不理会Terry叫他先按兵不动等待会合的命令,准备立刻发动攻击。他把他所率领的骑兵团分成三路,两路从侧边进攻,他自己则带领 211名骑兵从正面进攻。这是1876年的6月25日。
  Custer独断的擅自行动招致覆灭的结果。没有料到印地安的兵力及其英勇,他的部队陷入恐惧的惊慌失措,终至包括他在内,由他亲自率领从正面进击的211名骑兵全军覆没。其它两路部队也遭受猛烈的回击。一直到两天后Terry率军而来,才解救了剩余的部队。
  战役之后,印地安人检视这些尸体,将尸体身上的衣服剥光,并毁坏穿着军装的尸体,因为他们相信尸体遭受毁坏的亡魂将无法抵达幽冥世界,也就不用在死后还得跟敌人碰面。为了某些原因,他们把Custer身上的衣服剥光,但让他的尸体保留完整。最早期的美方说法是因为印地安人崇敬他的战斗精神。后来慢慢出现因为Custer当时没有穿军装,所以让印地安人以为他不是兵士、以及因为Custer在当时已经开始头发稀疏,让印地安人觉得这样的头颅不值得当成战利品等等说法,众说纷纭。
  在小巨角之役后,印地安人四散而去,他们的确击败了Custer,但是他们也了解到印地安的时代已经过去,也知道他们无法再继续抵抗这些白人。美国BANNED方面以伟大的南北战争英雄竟然在建国百周年时遭到杀害,必须剿灭红番以告慰这位英雄为名,数千人的骑兵部队陆续被派到这个区域作战,在往后一年中,他们毫不留情地追赶在此役后四散的印地安人,逼迫一位位的酋长俯首称臣。
  关于Custer当时为何有如此自杀式的独断举措,后人有许多臆测。有人说他是奉了Terry的秘密指令,不得不做,但大部分的人都相信是他热爱冒险的心驱使着他,还有他的自大轻敌,另外,也是因为他亟欲恢复他急速下滑的名声。
  被称作是「最惨烈的」美军与印地安人之间的战役,小巨角之役的历史定位历经多次变化。起初Custer被奉为英勇的将领,为了消灭野蛮的印地安人,即使遭受到不义的偷袭,仍率军英勇奋战,并且壮烈为国捐驱。但后期,印地安部落逐渐摆脱被强加的恶名,以及更多的历史数据被公布,以人道精神来看,小巨角战役之前的Washita River事件,也被厘清为单方面的屠杀、而非战役。
  Custer﹙1839-1876﹚本人的形象也充满了冲突与矛盾,他参加了中后期的南北战争,战功彪炳,被称为南北战争的英雄之一。南北战争后,随即被派遣到西部和印地安人周旋、以及保护探险队进行矿产的挖掘。虽然他在战场或是偷袭时杀戮印地安人,但是在驻扎在印地安部落左近时,和许多部落都有密切的互动。丧命于小巨角战役时,年仅38岁,死后被追封为少将。
  Custer和小巨角战役至今仍包围在争议性之中。印地安人虽然打赢此役但最终还是被迫离开祖宗的土地,被限制住居在保留区内,生活方式也遭到强行更改,只能依赖BANNED的救济来生活,印地安文化也逐步流失中。但相对地,美国在彻底击败原住民的印地安势力后,占了天时地利与人和,勇往直前地追求经济利益,建立日后成为世界第一强国的经济基础。
  当时那一场场的战役,再没有什么绝对的『英雄』、所谓的『光荣之战』也似乎从未存在过。只剩下两个进程不同的文化之间的冲击与迸裂。

  因为此役,Custer成为美国历史上最广为人知的人物之一。围绕着他的种种传说以及争论至今仍脍炙人口。以近年来说,1991年就有部颂扬 Custer事迹的电视剧《晨星之子》﹙Son of the Morning Star﹚。此外关于Custer以及小巨角战役的丛书、纪念馆、纪念活动、以及影视作品更是不计其数,其间展现的不同观点,亦值得想要以历史为鉴的人深思与明辨。


大小霍恩河之战和卡斯特骑兵团的覆灭,它在美国的军事史上投下了浓重的阴影,不论是在二战,还是在越战,或是以后任何一场战争中,每当形势不利的时候,人们总会联想起这次惨败。在战略或战术上,它不过是 情 报的失误和指挥官轻敌冒进的可悲结果而已,也许只有印第安方面的战术还有研究的余地。但是它的 精神影响却不可低估。

小大霍恩河是印地安人力量的顶峰。他们获得了伟大的胜利,但是很快他们不 稳 定的联盟就在白人的猛攻下四分五裂了。对在 独立战争一百周年纪念日的前夕失去一位广受欢迎的英雄感到愤怒,国家要求并获得了苛刻的报偿。黑山区的争夺迅速通过重新画定 边 境 线而解决了,它现在位于保留地之外,向白人拓荒者开放。一年之内,苏族被打败了并瓦解了。没想到,卡斯特的最后堡垒同时也是苏族人的最后堡垒

 1 2 下一页
分享到
添加到收藏

VOA慢速排行

  1. 1Money Talks 有钱能使鬼推磨 与钱有关的几
  2. 1VOA词汇掌故:It Will Not Wash 行不通;不起作
  3. 1VOA词汇掌故:Circus 与马戏团相关的成语表达
  4. 1VOA词汇掌故:与苹果相关的美国习惯用语
  5. 1VOA健康报道:放风筝能让人感到心情平静和愉
  6. 1VOA词汇掌故:Dime 形容经济形势不好的几个美
  1. 1VOA词汇掌故:Circus 与马戏团相关的成语表达
  2. 1Money Talks 有钱能使鬼推磨 与钱有关的几
  3. 1VOA词汇掌故:All About Names 和人的名字有
  4. 1VOA慢速: 科学家称夏威夷将有大型火山喷发
  5. 1美国专利局商标局发行第1000万份专利
  6. 1VOA慢速:朝美会晤 朝鲜选新加坡作为会面场所
  1. 1智能农场设备可以大大减少化学药品使用
  2. 1与Earth相关的所有地道英语表达
  3. 1VOA慢速:川普签署钢铝关税宣言 加拿大墨西哥
  4. 1VOA词汇掌故:All About Names 和人的名字有
  5. 1VOA慢速:亚马逊CEO贝佐斯成为全球首位千亿富
  6. 1世卫组织呼吁全球禁用反式脂肪 杜绝患心脏

鸿运国际pt客户端

百度360搜索搜狗搜索