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罗伯特李:天才军事家,用宽容化解战争的创伤

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American History Series: Lee and His Army Cross Into the North高速下载 Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- Am
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American History Series: Lee and His Army Cross Into the North


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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

Two years of a bitter, bloody civil war started to show their effects on both the Confederate states of the South and the Union states of the North. Both sides began to feel the pressure of the costly struggle. The South, however, felt the pressure more severely, because it was weaker in troop strength and industrial strength.

This week in our series, Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles discuss the early summer of eighteen sixty-three in the American Civil War.

VOICE ONE:

In eighteen-sixty-three, the Confederate states were becoming short of supplies. Food and guns were difficult to find to keep the Confederate armies in the field.

Men were also needed. More and more men. There seemed to be no end to the demand for men to fill the places left empty by dead and wounded soldiers.

Many in the South were heavy of heart. And the hope among them slowly started to sink. The war was tiring. Its suffering was more than they could bear. And the situation in the West made matters worse.

Union Armies were on the move in the states of Mississippi and Tennessee. Their successes were becoming a serious threat. They might soon win control of the whole Mississippi river. This would split the states of the Confederacy and might end its very existence.

Something was needed to raise up the spirits of the South to break the pressure of Union armies.

VOICE TWO:

General Robert E. Lee believed he had the answer: an invasion of the north. This, he felt, would throw fear into the people of the north and weaken the Union war effort.

Lee had organized an army of seventy-five-thousand men at Fredericksburg, Virginia, halfway between Washington and Richmond.

Lee began moving his men June third. They marched northwest into the Shenandoah Valley. The valley led north to the Potomac River. Across the river was the narrow neck of western Maryland, then Pennsylvania.

Pennsylvania was the target. Its rich farmland produced plenty of food -- enough to feed Lee's hungry army for the summer.

VOICE ONE:

Standing in the way of Lee's army was a small Union force at Winchester, in northern Virginia. There were only seven-thousand Union soldiers. And they had no idea that the Confederate army was nearby.

The Confederates easily defeated them. More than half of the Union troops were captured. The others fled.

Now there was nothing to stop Lee from marching into Pennsylvania.

The huge Army of the Potomac was behind him, near Washington. The Union commander, General Hooker, had to keep his army between Lee and Washington to prevent the Confederates from seizing the national capital.

VOICE TWO:

Lee's army crossed western Maryland and entered Pennsylvania. His soldiers found the Pennsylvania countryside very different from Virginia's. Virginia had been a battleground for two years, and the land showed it. Many of its farms had been destroyed. Its stores were empty.

Pennsylvania had not been touched by the war. Its big farms were rich. Its towns and villages were full of food and goods of all kinds.

The hungry, poorly-clothed soldiers could not believe their eyes. This was the land of the enemy, they cried, and they could take whatever they wished.

But General Lee said "No." He said supplies could be taken only by Confederate supply officers. And he said they must pay -- in Confederate money -- for everything they took.

VOICE ONE:

Lee did not want to anger these people in Pennsylvania. Many of them did not support the Union war effort. Some of the rich farmers said openly that they did not care who won the war. They said they only wanted to be left alone.

Lee was sure that many in the north felt the same way. There had been signs that people were growing tired of the war.

Coal miners in eastern Pennsylvania had shown their feelings toward the war a few months earlier.

They rose up against a new law drafting men into the Union army. The miners did not want to fight. They refused to join the army. They rioted and attacked officials who tried to take them. Soldiers were sent to the mining areas to put down the riots.

VOICE TWO:

Farmers in nearby Ohio also rebelled against the draft law. They refused to be drafted. Instead, they took guns and battled soldiers who came to arrest them.

Feelings against the war were growing stronger, not only in Pennsylvania and Ohio, but also in several other farm states of the north. These areas saw a growing support for a peace party -- a political party opposed to the war.

Leaders of this movement were Democrats called "Copperheads." They got this name because they wore on their coats a copper penny with the head of an Indian.

VOICE ONE:

The chief Copperhead was a former Ohio congressman. His name was Clement Vallandigham.

As a member of Congress, Vallandigham criticized the war and the Republicans. He told them:

"The war for the Union is, in your hands, a most bloody and costly failure. War for the Union was abandoned. And war for the Negro was openly begun with stronger effort than before. With what success." Vallandigham asked. "Let the dead at Fredericksburg and Vicksburg answer."

Vallandigham said he wanted peace, and he wanted it immediately. He offered a simple program: stop the fighting. Make a ceasefire. And let some friendly foreign nation negotiate peace between North and South.

VOICE TWO:

After he lost his seat in Congress, Vallandigham opened a campaign to become governor of Ohio. He traveled all across the state speaking out against the war. He said Republicans did not want peace. He said they wanted to fight until every black man was free.

The Union military commander for Ohio was General Ambrose Burnside, a former commander of the Army of the Potomac. After losing the battle of Fredericksburg, Lincoln removed Burnside as army commander and sent him to Ohio.

Burnside was worried. Too many people in Ohio opposed the war. He believed that much of what was being said and done in Ohio was close to the crime of treason.

VOICE ONE:

Burnside announced several new measures to quiet the opponents of the war.

One of these orders limited the right of citizens to criticize government military policy. Another declared that statements of support for the enemy would be punished as treason.

Vallandigham refused to recognize Burnside's right to give such orders to civilians. On May first, he made a campaign speech to a big crowd at Mount Vernon, Ohio. He denounced Burnside's orders and spoke of the President as "King Lincoln."

Vallandigham claimed that Lincoln was using the war to become a dictator. He said Lincoln did not want peace, that the president had rejected peace offers from the South. Once again, he said the war was not a struggle for the Union, but a fight to free the slaves of the south. And he said men of Ohio who let themselves be drafted into the Union army were no better than slaves themselves.

VOICE TWO:

Burnside had sent several army officers to listen to the speech. When they reported what Vallandigham said, Burnside ordered his arrest. Without question, the man had violated the General's orders.

Late the next night, soldiers went to Vallandigham's home in Dayton. They knocked on the door and said they had come to arrest him.

Vallandigham called for help and refused to let the soldiers enter. They broke down the door, seized him and took him to a military prison in Cincinnati.

A few days later, Vallandigham went on trial before a military court in Cincinnati. That will be our story in the next program of THE MAKING OF A NATION.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Maurice Joyce and Jack Moyles. Transcripts, MP3s and podcasts of our programs are online, along with historical images, at en8848.com. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

“美国内战从1861年打到1865年,林肯先后任命麦克道尔、麦克劳伦、波普、伯恩赛德、胡克、米德多为北军司令,因为他们面对罗伯特.李的智慧、勇气、果敢、坚毅、无谓束手无策。”

内战爆发时,罗伯特·李已是联邦军队中的一位声名显赫的将军,林肯曾有意让他担任北方军队的指挥官。当时,罗伯特·李的心情非常矛盾:他反对奴隶制,不赞成南方脱离美国独立;但也反对北方对南方采用武力,去攻打他的家乡弗吉尼亚。他说:“我不能举起我的手,去反对我的亲人、孩子和我的家园。”最后,他义无反顾地加入到南方军队,并且成了南军的统帅。

1861年,双方在东战场举行了第一次马那萨斯会战。7月21日,北方发起向南方首都里士满进军的攻势,3.5万北方军队排着整齐队形,在军乐声中向里士满进军,南方军队2.2万在铁路枢纽马那萨斯列阵相迎。北军跨过布尔河向对岸发起冲击。李沉着指挥,击退了北军5次冲锋,因此获得“石墙”的美称。8月底,与北军进行第二次马那萨斯会战。南军有5. 4万人,北军8万人。李高超的指挥艺术发挥得淋漓尽致(是美国历史上罕见的以少胜多的军事天才)。他以小部队把北军主力吸引到阵地上,主力机动,从侧翼和后方发起进攻,然后正面、侧面夹击,一举击溃了北军。安特提姆会战南军伤亡13000人,北军伤亡11000人,双方一共有2万4千人倒在了战场上,这一天成为了美国历史上最血腥的一天。葛底斯堡战役. 是内战中最激烈的一次,烟雾迷蒙、尘土飞扬、弹片四溅、血流成河、遍地残骸。。。。。。战场上有棵树竟身中250弹。7月1日是战争中最惨烈的一天,胜利的南方军队损失了6000人,相当于总数的22%,而北方军更是有8900人伤亡,包括被俘的3500人,占其总兵力的28%。到了1865年,忠于李的士兵们已经是只能用野洋葱、野草、去年的烂土豆和所有只要能吃的东西充饥了。大势已去,继续流血只会是无谓的牺牲。1865年4月,李下令打起了白旗。李将军在他起草给战士们的最后一份文告里说:只是因为感到英勇和忠诚是无法补偿继续战斗所招致的损失,所以我决定避免无谓的牺牲。其实,“林肯一直担心南方部队一旦化整为零,撤退到广袤的深山老林打游击,美国就会陷人永无休止的长期内战。因为美国南方有的是森林、草原、沼泽、沙漠,而南方人天生蛮猛剽悍,一旦南方军队脱掉军装退隐江湖,和拥有武器的民众混为一体,战争势必演变成南方各州保卫家园的持久战。但,李不愿用游击战来牺牲美利坚全民族的和平。他说:我的道德不允许我去这么做。。。。。。”

美国南北战争双方共死亡62万人,其中北方36万,南方26万(大约每60个美国人里,就有一个死于战火)。伤者百万以上,耗资250亿美元。——正是李以其高度的责任感及无私的个人品质结束了可能一分为二,互相牵制的美利坚合国的历史,确定了没有一州能随便脱离联邦独立,为美国独霸世界打下了坚实的基础。福特曾感言道:“李是一个真正的美国英雄,深深地受到了南方和北方的共同尊敬。”

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