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美国南北战争:南方获胜,但痛失石墙.杰克逊

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American History Series: The South Wins a Battle, but Loses Stonewall Jackson高速下载 Welcome to THE MAKING OF
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American History Series: The South Wins a Battle, but Loses Stonewall Jackson


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Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION -- American history in VOA Special English.

In the early weeks of eighteen sixty-three, the American Civil War took a new political direction. President Abraham Lincoln had announced the Emancipation Proclamation. That measure freed the slaves in the rebel states of the South, though Lincoln's words fell on deaf ears.

Yet no longer was the Civil War a struggle just to save the Union. It had become a struggle for human freedom.

There was a change on the military side of the war, too. President Lincoln named a new commander for the Union's Army of the Potomac. This was the force that would try again to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia.

This week in our series, Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant describe events during the spring of eighteen sixty-three.

VOICE ONE:

General Joe Hooker was the new commander of the Army of the Potomac. He replaced General Ambrose Burnside, when Burnside suffered a terrible defeat at Fredericksburg, Virginia, at the end of eighteen sixty-two. Burnside had replaced General George McClellan, when McClellan kept refusing to obey President Lincoln's orders.

Hooker had one hundred thirty thousand men. They were well-trained and well-supplied.

The Confederate force opposing Hooker's was under the command of General Robert E. Lee. Lee had only about sixty thousand men. They did not have good equipment. And their supplies were low. But their fighting spirit was high. They had defeated the Union army before. They were sure they could do it again.

VOICE TWO:

Lee's army still held strong defensive positions along high ground south of Fredericksburg. This was almost halfway between the capitals of the opposing sides: Washington and Richmond.

General Hooker did not plan to make the same mistake which General Burnside made at Fredericksburg. Burnside had thrown his army against Lee's defensive positions six times. Each time, the Confederates pushed them back easily. In one day of fighting, more than twelve thousand Union soldiers were killed or wounded.

General Hooker had rebuilt the Army of the Potomac. Now he was ready to carry out his plan against General Lee.

Hooker left half his men at Fredericksburg, in front of Lee's army. He would move the other half into position behind Lee's army. If Lee turned to meet him, the troops at Fredericksburg would attack. The Confederate army would be caught between two powerful forces. Lee would have to withdraw, or lose his army.

VOICE ONE:

Hooker moved around past the end of Lee's line. Then he turned and started marching back behind it.

It was a hard march through thick woods, and across rough hills and valleys. The country was so wild that it was called the wilderness.

On the last day of April, eighteen sixty-three, the Union force reached Chancellorsville. Chancellorsville was a crossroads near the edge of the wilderness. The next day, the soldiers would be in open country. There, General Hooker could make the best use of his men.

Hooker was extremely pleased. Everything was going as he had planned. He told his officers: "I have Lee in one hand and Richmond in the other."

The next day, Union soldiers began moving out of Chancellorsville and the wilderness. They did not get far. They ran into several thousand Confederate soldiers. Lee had sent them to slow the Union force.

VOICE TWO:

The Confederate force was weak. General Hooker's officers believed they could smash through it without difficulty. They did not get a chance to try.

Hooker sent new orders: break off the fight. Return to Chancellorsville. Put up defensive positions.

Hooker's officers were shocked. They protested. Hooker stood firm. He said, "Lee must fight me on my own ground."

Robert E. Lee could not understand why the Union force had returned to Chancellorsville. But he was happy it did. Now he had time to prepare his men for battle.

VOICE ONE:

Lee met that night with his top general, Stonewall Jackson. They discussed the best way to attack the Union force.

The center of the Union line was strong. The right side was not. Jackson was sure he could get around behind it. Lee asked Jackson how many men he would take. "All of them," Jackson answered. "Twenty-eight thousand."

This meant Lee would have only fourteen thousand men to face General Hooker. If the Union force attacked before Stonewall Jackson got into position, Lee could not possibly hold it back.

Lee was taking a huge chance. He thought about it for a moment. Then he told Jackson to get started.

VOICE TWO:

Jackson's men began to leave the next morning. Union soldiers watched as they marched away. General Hooker thought Lee was withdrawing.

It took Jackson only half a day to get behind the Union force. He spent a few more hours putting his troops into position. Then he attacked. It was six o'clock in the evening.

The right end of the Union force was not prepared for an attack. The soldiers could not believe their eyes when they saw Confederate troops running out of the woods behind them. Many Union soldiers were killed or wounded. Thousands fled.

The sun went down. The fighting continued under a bright moon. The Confederate troops kept moving forward. The Union troops kept falling back. One northern soldier wrote later: "Darkness was upon us. Jackson was upon us. And fear was upon us."

VOICE ONE:

Jackson seemed to be everywhere. He rode his horse among his men, urging them forward. He would not let the Union force escape.

As Jackson and some of his officers rode into a cleared area of the woods, shots rang out. The bullets came from Confederate guns. The Confederate soldiers thought they were firing on Union officers.

Jackson fell from his horse. Two bullets had smashed his left arm. Another bullet had hit his right hand. He was hurried to the back of the line. A doctor quickly cut off his left arm and stopped the heavy bleeding.

Jackson seemed to get better. Then he developed pneumonia. He was unconscious most of the time. He seemed to dream of battle, and shouted commands to his officers. Then he grew quiet. He opened his eyes and said, "Let us pass over the river and rest in the shade of the trees."

The great Confederate General, Stonewall Jackson, was dead.

VOICE TWO:

While Jackson lay dying, the battle of Chancellorsville continued.

Robert E. Lee's Confederate army was much smaller than Joe Hooker's Union army. But for five days, Lee kept part of his army moving between Chancellorsville and Fredericksburg. Wherever the Union army attacked, Lee quickly added more men to his lines. The Union army could not break through.

The fighting was taking place on the south side of the Rappahannock River. The Union army's supply lines were on the north side.

Spring rains were beginning to make the Rappahannock rise. General Hooker did not want to get trapped without food and ammunition. So he ordered his men back across the river.

VOICE ONE:

The South had won the battle of Chancellorsville. Robert E. Lee was sure of that. Once again, he had forced back the Army of the Potomac. But the Union army was not hurt seriously. New soldiers would soon take the place of those lost in battle.

Lee, however, would find it more difficult to replace his soldiers. The South was running out of manpower. Every Confederate army needed men -- more and more men. Yet fewer and fewer southern boys were willing to become soldiers.

Anti-war movements were, in fact, active in both the North and South. There were a number of protests against the military draft. Some turned violent.

In the North, a political party was created to oppose the Civil War. Leaders of this peace party were called Copperheads. They got the name because they wore a copper penny showing the head of an Indian.

That will be our story in our next program on the Civil War.

(MUSIC)

ANNOUNCER:

Our program was written by Frank Beardsley. The narrators were Harry Monroe and Kay Gallant. Our series can be found online with transcripts, podcasts and historical images at en8848.com. You can also follow our weekly programs on Twitter at VOA Learning English. Join us again next week for THE MAKING OF A NATION -- an American history series in VOA Special English.

罗伯特-李(Robert Edward Lee)生平(美国内战中最让人敬佩的将军)

李的家族是美国历史上最为悠久和显赫的家族之一。父亲曾经是大陆军骑兵军官,被授予“国家英雄”称号。李是个彻底的人道主义者,终其一生都为自己是军人而内疚。在他的家乡弗吉尼亚,蓄奴是合法的,可是当后来的北军统帅,战后的美国总统,现在印在50美元钞票上的格兰特还没有解放自己家的奴隶时,李已经解放了自己家族的全部奴隶。李认为蓄奴制度是一种“道德和政治上罪恶”(A moral and political evil),“白人的一项巨大罪恶”(A greater evil to the white)。

李从军校毕业后功勋卓著,并曾担任过西点军校的校务总管。1861年南北战争爆发后,弗杰尼亚州宣布加入南方邦联。而此时,李接到了林肯亲自发出的委任状,准备晋升他为联邦军准将。李在接到信后整整思考了三天,他不赞同南方的主张,他热爱由自己的父亲和曾岳父参与建立的合众国,但是,他同样不赞成北方以武力解决南方的分离诉求。他实在无法去和自己的家乡和亲人作战厮杀。在给林肯的辞职信中李写道:除了保卫我的家乡弗吉尼亚外,我决不拔出我的剑。

4月23日,李拒绝了联邦政府的邀请,辞去担任了36年之久的联邦军官职务,出任了南军统帅并在其后屡次大败北军。从1861年到1865年,林肯先后撤换了麦克道尔、麦克莱伦、波普、伯恩塞德、胡克、米德多位北军司令——因为他们在罗伯特-李面前束手无策。

转折性的葛底斯堡(Gettysburg)战役中,南军遭到惨重失败。“皮吉特冲锋” (Pickett’s Charge)使得一万多名南军官兵在一个小时内倒在了血泊中,三个师共计3名准将,18名上校,31名中校,46名少校阵亡。这成为了李一生遭受的唯一一次战败。战役后,李不停地流着泪对士兵说道:“It is fault! It is all my fault! My friend! It is my fault!!”他曾对朗斯特将军说:你我并不惧怕自己的死亡,你或是我的。然而最为一个指挥官最痛苦和困难的事情就是驱赶着士兵们去献身去死亡。他们并不是为了我们而死。不,阁下,绝对不。我会为此深深地悔恨和忏悔一辈子。

葛底斯堡战役后,南军已经无力阻挡北军的攻势。李明白此时的南方大势已去,他向还在与他战斗着的格兰特提出了投降谈判的要求。有人提出让全体南军部队化整为零打游击战,就如同当年独立战争时他们的祖辈对付英国人那样。但是,罗伯特-李认为他所从事的战争必须是一项高尚的事业,“军人”对他的全部含义就是维护民众利益。

游击战也许可以扭转南方政治上的失利,但是他作为职业军人的荣誉不能容忍游击战打破军人、平民的角色区别,将暴力引入民间,把本该由军队承担的责任、伤亡都转嫁于平民。这种在今后历史中屡试不爽的谋略为李所不齿,他认为军民不分不仅直接伤害妇女儿童老人,而且会积聚仇恨,使道德正义离人们而去,使整个民族的道德沦丧。游击战远远超出他的道德底线,李宁肯接受强加给他的叛乱罪名,也不愿用游击战牺牲全民族和平。

——战争是我们这些军人的职业,如果如你们所说,那就等于把战争的责任推给了无辜的人民,虽带来的也只会是无休无止地争斗和血腥的屠杀。我虽然不是一个优秀的军人,但是我的道德不允许我去这么做。如果我的死,可以换取人民和这片土地的安宁,那就让他们把我当作战争罪犯绞死吧。

终于,李和格兰特在阿托克马斯(Appomattox)的法院会面商讨投降事宜。在得到了格兰特决不会关押迫害一名南军士兵的保证后,李同意在投降协议上签字。最后,李却又补充了一条——即允许南军士兵带走军中的战马,当格兰特问及原因的时候,李只说:马上就要春耕了,他们都是农民的儿子,需要这些马去劳作。

双方最终在互相尊重的气氛中签署了协议。李手下的2万8千名饥寒交迫的士兵正式投降,历时将近5年的残酷厮杀终于停止。

战后,李单人独骑把自己流放到小镇列克星敦,为他内战时牺牲的战友“石墙”杰克逊(“Stonewall”Jackson)和144名南军士兵的墓地守灵。而他原来位于阿灵顿的家园已被北军给予没收,后来的阿灵顿国家公墓就建在这里。

这之后,李谢绝了很多高额收入的工作邀请,“我们就是曾经由于无知和误解,血腥地互相仇杀,而我也是其中的刽子手之一。如今,也唯有教育能给我一个赎罪的机会。”遵照这样的信条,李担任了弗杰尼亚华盛顿大学的校长,任期内在华盛顿大学开创了美国历史上的第一个新闻系和商业系。

1870年10月12日,罗伯特-李由于心脏病突发倒在自己的校长办公室内,送到医院后于黄昏时溘然长逝,享年63岁。

李无疑是内战中最为杰出的一名指挥官,同时也是品格最受人推崇和尊敬的将领。在整个战争中,李的每一场战役都面对远远多于他兵力的北军,尽管他遭受过失败,但李的部队从来没有出现过因失去秩序而崩溃,他始终都是坚守在阵地上直到最后一刻,李所辖的北弗杰尼亚军团也是美国历史最好的一支部队。

托马斯·杰克逊的生平简介

托马斯・乔纳森・“石墙”・杰克逊(Thomas Jonathan “stonewall”Jackson,1824年1月20日或21日~1863年5月10日)美国内战期间著名的南军将领。有部分历史学家认为,如果以战绩作比较,托马斯・杰克逊是美国内战中唯一的英雄。

绰号:石壁

生卒年份:1824.1.21~1863.5

出身:孤儿

学历:大学(西点军校)

职务:南方军军长

军衔:上将

【内战时期】

托马斯・杰克逊在罗伯特・李将军的北维吉尼亚军团辖下一个兵团任指挥官。他是整个南北战争时期南军最优秀的指挥官之一。于1861年4月27日成立了一个军旅。

[第一次马纳沙斯之役]

石墙杰克森与一批维吉尼亚军团赶到战场;毕将军的军团正在撤退,因为北军大炮占领了马修山,阻止了毕将军军团的前进。

北军步兵在大炮的掩护下推进, 石墙杰克森的军旅开始迎战。双方开火后南军就冲锋杀敌,北军被打败,马修山失守,大炮被抢。石墙杰克森和他成立的军旅在这战役中一举成名,开始被称呼为石墙旅。但石墙杰克森常称石墙旅为"维吉尼亚第一旅"。

【河谷会战】

当汤玛士・杰克森获得"石墙"的美名同时,在西线,南军挡不住格兰特的攻势,节节败退,为了逼使更多北军前往维吉尼亚战区,李希望可以在维吉尼亚发动大型战事,以免格兰特把西部的南军击溃。石墙杰克森遂决定于1862年派兵攻击马里兰州,不过,在汉考克之役中石墙旅的炮轰未能打倒防守的北军,于是引他们再次深入南方内陆的雪伦多亚河谷;而林肯亦决定派更多军人追赶“撤到雪伦多亚河谷的南军”。

3月22日, 北军军官约翰率9,000人在第一次克恩斯镇之役打败石墙的3,400人,是其第一次,亦是唯一一次被打败。

5 月8至9日,北军有两个旅想组成一支较大的部队,石墙杰克森先发制人,率6,000南军进攻麦克道威。5月8日, 南军渡过考帕斯彻河(Cowpasture River)时遭到北军的突击,但四小时后,北军被打退,撤回麦克道威。次日, 北军再次发动进攻,但大败而回,南军进入麦克道威。

[死亡]

他在钱斯勒斯维尔战役中被己方军队误伤致死。

罗伯特・李在听到杰克逊的死讯后对自己的炊事兵说“威廉,我失去了我的右臂”。

 

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