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夺目的彩虹色反而有利于动植物隐藏自己?

kira86 于2018-07-11发布 l 已有人浏览
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在动植物界,为什么有些生物的外表颜色亮眼却不容易被捕食者发现?
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……
荧光色苍蝇.jpg
Iridescence Could Help Critters Hide in Plain Sight
彩虹色有助于动植物在明显的地方隐藏自己
A good disguise keeps you hidden, right? Well, sometimes the best disguise is actually the most dazzling. Because research reveals that flashy metallic iridescence can visually baffle predators. Which allows colorful prey to survive another day. Those eye-popping results appear in the journal Scientific Reports.
一个好的伪装可以让自己隐藏起来,对吗?不过有时候最好的伪装实际上也是最耀眼的。因为研究表明,耀眼的金属彩虹色可以从视觉上迷惑捕食者。因而可以让多彩被捕食的生物逃过一劫。这个令人瞠目的结果发表在《科学报告》杂志上。
Shimmering iridescent coloration...which changes depending on the angle from which it's viewed...is favored by everything from birds to beetles and and blossoms to butterflies.
闪闪发光的彩虹色,会根据观看角度不同而发生变化,(因此)彩虹色受到从鸟类到甲虫、从花朵到蝴蝶等各种生物的亲睐。
And in our research group we are of course interested in why this vivid metallic coloration is so taxonomically widespread in nature.
“而在我们的研究小组中,我们当然对这种生动的金属色为何会在动植物界如此广泛的存在而感兴趣。”
Karin Kjernsmo of the University of Bristol. She says that in some cases the showy splashes of light are a sexual strategy.
布里斯托大学的卡琳·杰吉莫说到:“在某些情况下,艳丽显眼的光是一种性策略。”
Here I would like to point out that in some species, particularly those that display strong sexual dimorphism, such as birds of paradise or the pea fowl or even in some butterflies or fishes, the occurrence of iridescence is most likely driven by sexual selection. For example, in many of these cases it is the males that have these vivid iridescent colors and they use them in mate choice or they use them as a signal to attract mates.
“我想指出的是,在某些物种中,尤其是那些表现出性别二态性(又称:两性异形、性二态性)十分明显的物种,比如极乐鸟、孔雀,甚至是某些蝴蝶或鱼类,彩虹色的存在极有可能是由雌雄淘汰所影响的。”例如,在这些研究案例中,多是雄鸟拥有这种鲜艳的荧光色,雄鸟利用颜色来选择配偶,或者说,雄鸟们将(身体的)颜色作为吸引配偶的讯号。
But iridescence also shows up in situations where reproduction is not an issue...for example, in caterpillars or chrysalises.
但是,在与繁殖无关的情况下,彩虹色也会出现,比如,在毛毛虫或蝶蛹身上(就是如此)。
So what we are studying now is whether natural selection imposed by predation could explain the occurrence of iridescence in prey animals.
“所以我们现在正在研究的是,捕食作用所加强的自然淘汰是否能够解释这些被捕食动物身上出现彩虹色的原因。”
The idea that eye-catching colors could be used as a cover-up isn't a new one.
引人注目的颜色可以用做掩护,这个主意并不新鲜。
The father of camouflage theory, Abbott Thayer, he really believed that iridescence should be categorized as a camouflage strategy. And he wrote in his famous lifework Concealing-Coloration in the Animal Kingdom, already in 1909, that brilliantly changeable or metallic colors are among the strongest factors in an animal's concealment." And this sounds like a completely counterintuitive thing to say, because how can colors that are both brilliant and changeable contribute to animal's concealment?"
“‘伪装理论之父’(迷彩之父)阿伯特·塞耶确信,彩虹色应该被归类为一种伪装策略。并且他于1909年就在他著名的毕生巨作《动物王国中的隐蔽色》中写道‘动物身上最强特性之一就是夺目可变或金属色的色彩。’这听起来似乎是一种完全违反直觉的说法,因为鲜艳且多变的颜色,怎么可能还会有助于动物隐藏呢?”
After all, when we think of camouflage, we tend to think about blending in to the background. But there are forms of camouflage...called disruptive coloration...that work by breaking up an animal's otherwise tell-tale shape.
毕竟,我们一想到伪装就会倾向于考虑与背景融为一体。但是,有一种伪装形式叫做混隐色(保护色),即通过改变动物的原本的身形来发挥作用。
In a similar way, we were asking whether iridescence, due to its changeability, could work as a form of camouflage by obstructing shape recognition.
“同样的,我们也提出,彩虹色因为它的易变性是否可以通过阻碍形状被识别来而作为一种伪装形式。”
Kjernsmo and her colleagues trained bumblebees to associate a particular shape... a circle or an oval...with a sugar reward. And they found that the bees, when given a choice, would preferentially visit the shape they knew to be sweet. But when the shapes were iridescent, the bees had trouble telling them apart.
杰吉莫和她的同事训练大黄蜂将一个特定的形状,比如一个圆形或椭圆形与一个糖的奖励关联起来。然后他们发现,当大黄蜂被予以选择机会时候,它们会优先选择已知的代表甜的形状。而当形状呈彩虹色时,大黄蜂就很难区分了。
It seemed that the strikingly iridescent surfaces on our targets visually broke up the otherwise recognizable shape of the targets.
“目标那引人注目的彩虹表面似乎从视觉上破坏了目标原本可辨认的形状。”
Which made them hard to distinguish.
而这让它们(大黄蜂)很难区分。
As for making use of this method for hiding in plain sight...
至于在一览无遗的地方用这种方法来隐藏.....
Any practical applications is of course directly linked to any industry that has an interest in camouflage, that is how to conceal objects or make them more difficult to recognize.
“当然,任何实际应用都与所有对伪装感兴趣的行业直接相关,那就是如何隐藏目标或让目标更难被辨认。”
The researchers are currently conducting experiments with birds...which often include iridescent insects in their diet. To see if it helps to have a bird's-eye view.
研究人员目前正在对常以彩虹色昆虫为食的鸟类进行这项实验。看看是否会有助于(影响)鸟类的视角。
 
(小e英语Jewel翻译,欢迎捉虫!)
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