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猫鼬的社交协作方式:你为我放哨 我为你梳毛

kira86 于2018-06-08发布 l 已有人浏览
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灵长类动作的社交都是在梳毛、抓虱子中进行的,而研究发现,非灵长类动物也遵守“互助”的社交方式。
    小E英语欢迎您,请点击播放按钮开始播放……
Mongoose.jpg
Mongooses Gift Grooming for Guard Duty
猫鼬的社交协作方式:你为我放哨,我为你梳毛
If I buy you lunch today, chances are you'll pick up the tab next time. We humans reciprocate a lot... days, weeks or even months later. And other primates do it too. Monkeys that are more generous with food, for example, enjoy more grooming from their peers... and they're more likely to get backup later on in a fight.
如果我今天请你吃午饭,你下次很可能会回请。我们人类会在几天、几周甚至几个月后回报对方。其他灵长类动物也会这样做。例如,对食物更慷慨的猴子会从同伴那里得到更多的尊敬,而且它们更有可能在以后的战斗中得到支援。
Now a new study suggests a nonprimate, the dwarf mongoose, also makes cooperative, time-delayed barters... trading grooming for guard duty. Here's how it works.
现在,一项新的研究表明,一种非灵长类动物——侏儒猫鼬,也会进行合作、延时交换……用帮同伴刷毛换取同伴的守卫。下面是详情解释。
When an individual is on sentinel, they are basically on guard duty for the rest of the group. Julie Kern, a behavioral ecologist University of Bristol. "So they will choose an elevated position like a tree or a termite mound from which to sit and then they watch out to predators that might be coming in to target the group. They'll give alarm calls if they spot these, (alarm calls) to warn the rest of the group."
布里斯托尔大学行为生态学家朱莉·克恩说到:“当猫鼬在岗哨上时,它们基本是在为这个群体的其它成员站岗。所以猫鼬会选择一个比较高的位置,比如坐在一棵树或一个白蚁土堆,然后小心提防可能会攻击自己族群的捕食者。一旦发现捕食者,它们会发出警报,来警告其它成员。”
But throughout the watch, they also remind everyone they're on lookout, with softer surveillance calls ( surveillance calls). So any mongooses hunting for bugs can keep calm and carry on.
但在整个监视过程中,猫鼬还会用更柔和的监视报告来提醒每个成员,自己正在巡视。这样,任何寻找虫子的猫鼬都可以保持冷静并继续觅食。
What Kern and her colleagues observed in the wild was that mongooses who took those lookout shifts also enjoyed more grooming back at the burrow. Then, to establish cause and effect, they played recordings of certain mongoose individuals making surveillance calls - in effect tricking the mongoose's peers into thinking it was on guard duty. And indeed, the supposed sentry was rewarded with more grooming later on... suggesting that dwarf mongooses trade favors, even after time has passed.
克恩和她的同事在野外观察到的是,那些负责了放哨的猫鼬在回到洞穴后,会享受多次刷毛待遇。然后,(克恩和她的同事)为了确定二者之间的因果关系,他们播放了某些猫鼬发出的警示声,实际上是为了骗过猫鼬的其它伙伴,让它们以为这是在放哨。事实上,这个所谓的哨兵最后也得到了更多次梳理毛发作为报答,这也暗示了猫鼬之间所青睐的交易方式,即使是在事情已经过去之后。
The details are in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
详情发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上。
Not to say mongoose society is quite as complex as ours. "I think there are obviously ways in which we track contributions which are very different to what's going on here." But at a very basic level - it appears mongoose society also follows the rule, "You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours."
猫鼬群体几乎和我们人类社会一样复杂。“我认为,很明显,虽然我们记录贡献值的方式与猫鼬之间记录的方式之间差别很大,但是从最基本的层面上来讲,猫鼬社群看来也遵守着‘你帮我,我就帮你’这样的规则。”
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