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科学美国人60秒: 蚯蚓和土地

lzy 于2017-11-09发布 l 已有人浏览
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科学美国人60秒: 蚯蚓和土地
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 Charles Darwin is, most famously, the author of The Origin of Species. But the last book he ever wrote gets far less attention today. It's called The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms. And earthworms were a passion: he wrote about their habits, their soil-tilling abilities, even kept pots of worm-filled soil in his study.
查尔斯达尔文最著名的著作是《物种的起源》。 但是他最后写的一本书如今已经很少有人关注了。书名叫做《腐植土的产生与蚯蚓的作用》 。蚯蚓可是他的一大爱好:他描写过关于蚯蚓的习性,翻土的习惯,甚至还在他的研究中保存蚯蚓翻过的容器
But his fascination was met with ridicule by some. There's a famous cartoon where you know Charles Darwin as an old man is in the middle and he evolves from monkeys because he was evolutionist and the monkeys evolved from earthworms.
可是他对此的着迷却被某些人奚落。有一个很著名的卡通片里面将达尔文描写成为一个老人,站在中间。 他从猴子进化而来,而猴子又是从蚯蚓进化而来的。
Olaf Schmidt is a soil ecologist at University College Dublin. And not among those who would criticize Darwin for his interests. I love earthworms, the earthworms are brilliant. They're our friends, they're really important.
这是Olaf Schmidt 都柏林大学的一位土壤生态学家。 他并不会批评达尔文的兴趣爱好。我喜欢蚯蚓, 蚯蚓非常棒。它们是我们人类的朋友。它们真的很重要。
One particularly interesting group of worms, he says, are the so-called "anecic" worms: the deep soil dwellers. And they live all their life in a single vertical channel in the soil. And at night they surface, looking for food - manure, straw, stuff like that, and they pull it into their channels.
他说自己对某一种蚯蚓很感兴趣,它们被称为"anecic" 蚯蚓:在深层土壤下居住。在土地中的一个垂直型通道内生活。到了夜晚,它们出来活动,找寻食物——肥料,麦秆之类的东西, 然后它们把找到的食物拖到生活的通道内。
They're big boys. Which makes them especially vulnerable to the plow. You know they're so big, so they're chopped, they are exposed to birds, and also their channels are destroyed.
这种蚯蚓体型较大,所以对犁地等活动特别敏感脆弱。因为它们太大,所以会被鸟捕食,它们居住的通道也容易被破坏掉。
Schmidt and his colleague Maria Briones analyzed the relationship between tilling and the health of a dozen species of earthworms. They looked at 65 years'-worth of farm field studies, spanning the globe.
Schmidt 和他的同事Maria Briones 分析了翻土活动和许多种蚯蚓的健康之间的关系。他们观察了65年来关于全球农田土壤价值的实地研究。
And they found that in heavily plowed fields, half the earthworms had disappeared. But when farmers switched to no-till or conservation agriculture, worm populations wriggled back to normal numbers after about a decade. The study is in the journal Global Change Biology. The plow,
结果发现,在深度耕犁过的土地上,一半左右的蚯蚓已经消失。但是当农民不耕或者是保守农耕的地方,蚯蚓的数量又会在十年左右时间里慢慢回到正常水平。 该研究已经发表在《生物学全球变化》杂志上。
Darwin wrote, is one of the most ancient and most valuable of man's inventions, but long before he existed the land was in fact regularly plowed, and still continues to be thus plowed by earthworms. And, Schmidt says, just as the worms look after the soil, the flip side's true, too. If you look after the soil, you also look after the earthworms. You know so it is a good-news story.
耕地,达尔文曾写过,是一种最古老最有价值的人类发明之一,可是在人类出现在地球上之前,实际上这片土地已经被有规律的翻整过了,并且仍然继续被蚯蚓翻整着。还有,Schmidt 说,就像蚯蚓照看着土地那样,土地也会照顾蚯蚓。如果你关心土地,你也同时在照顾着蚯蚓。你就会明白这是一件好事情。
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